Essay Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia: The First Civilization Essay

Around 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians began to colonize the fertile valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This area was called Mesopotamia, which in Greek means, "land between the rivers." Through their developments of writing, architecture, economy, government, religion, agriculture, and technology, the Sumerians created what we know today as civilized life.

The greatest achievement of the Sumerians was the invention of cuneiform style writing. They would engrave their picture words using reeds as a writing instrument on wet clay, which would then dry into stone-hard tablets. Eventually, they converted their picture words to a short-hand consisting of wedged lines created by bending the reed against the wet clay and moving the end closest to the hand back and forth once. We still use a short-hand form of writing today.

The Sumerians architectural achievements were most impressive. They were masters of construction using bricks made of mud. They developed vast extensive buildings, elaborate brick house, palaces, and temples. The Sumerians developed the arch and the column. These accomplishments greatly influenced our civilization.

Mesopotamia was divided into independent city-states. The cities were centers of trade. Their economy relied heavily on foreign and domestic trade. Trade and commerce developed in Mesopotamia, because the farmers grew more food than they could eat. They used the surplus to trade for goods and services. Many aspects of our modern enterprise economy have their roots in the early civilizations of Mesopotamia.

The Sumerians seem to have developed one of the worlds first systems of monarchy. Because their government was based on religion, a priest-king administered the...

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The History of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt Essay

1323 Words6 Pages

The History of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt

Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are both cradles of civilization. Both contributed greatly to human development through their achievements, failures, peoples, scientific accomplishments, philosophies, religions, and contributions.

Mesopotamia is a rich flat plain created by deposits from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. At the southern end of this plain developed the first recognizable civilization, in the area known as Sumer. In 3000 B.C. Sumer contained a dozen or more city-states, each ruled by its own king and worshiped its own patron deity. The citizens of these city-states were classified into three classes: nobles and priests, commoners, and slaves. In the center of a…show more content…

The ruler of this dynasty was Ur-Nammu. He was the first ruler to establish law codes and spell out regulations and penalties.

Another great ruler was King Hammurabi of Babylon. He set up the Code of Hammurabi, which includes 300 sections of carefully organized codes that ruled the Babylonians. Hammurabi was the first example of a lawgiver. He provided one of the greatest written documents of his time: a stone column with a long series of legal judgments published with his name. Hammurabi even designed codes for the family life. He took care of the women and children in his society. He regulated marriage with care to secure a stable life for future generations. He combined both law and religious belief to create an ordered society. The Mesopotamians built on foundations laid by the Sumerians using their sexagesimal system. They had multiplication tables, exponents, tables for computing interest, and textbooks with problems for solution. They also developed systems of astrology and astronomy, and even created a lunar calendar.

The early cities of Mesopotamia fell from one warlord to another, and were constantly changing, unlike the kingdoms of Ancient Egypt that kept its stability. The Egyptians lived along the Nile River, which probably made it easier to govern the people. The King was the owner and ruler of all Egypt and was considered a god by the people. The economy was a royal monopoly, the peoples duties was to serve the King. In the old Kingdom

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