Use your model and the information in Chapter 10 of Biology, 7th edition, to answer the questions.1. The various reactions in photosynthesis are spatially segregated from each other within the chloroplast. Draw a simplified diagram of a chloroplast and include these parts: outer membrane, grana, thylakoid, lumen, stroma/matrix. Refer to Figure 10.3, page 183, in Biology,7th edition. a. Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions occur? In the thylakoid membranesb. Where in the chloroplast is the chemiosmotic gradient developed? Across the thylakoid membrane; H+ions are pumped into the thylakoid spacec. Where in the chloroplast does the Calvin cycle occur ? In the stroma or liquid portion of the chloroplast2. In photosynthesis, the reduction of carbon dioxide to form glucose is carried out in a controlled series of reactions. In general, each step or reaction in the sequence requires the input of energy. The sun is the ultimate source of this energy. a. What is/are the overall function(s) of photosystem I? b. What is/are the overall function(s) of photosystem II? c. What is/are the overall function(s) of the Calvin cycle? In noncyclic photosphosphorylation, photosystem I produces NADPH. In cyclic photophosphorylation, photosystem I produces ATP. Photosystem II generates ATP. To fill the electron hole in photosystem II, water is split into 2 H+, 2e−, and 1/2O2. (The electron from photosystem II fills the electron hole in photosystem I.)The Calvin cycle uses the ATP and NADPH generated in the light reactions to reduce CO2to three-carbon compounds in a cyclic series of reactions that regenerates the original five-carbon sugar required to accept the CO2. The three-carbon compounds can be used to make glucose or other organic compounds required by the cells.
Questions. Most of the questions are for self-assessment. The information can be found in the pages of GCSE Biology and IGCSE Biology.
Sections 1-5 correspond to the sections in GCSE Biology and IGCSE Biology. Sections 6 and 7 are drawn from Chapters 30-39.
Exercises and Discussions. These questions are more demanding and test Interpretation of data (I), Hypothesis formulation and design (H), Experimental design (E), Application of biological information (A), Comprehension of scientific articles (C) as well as simple recall (R).
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Interactive questions. The interactive multiple choice questions correspond to the multiple choice questions in GCSE and IGCSE exam papers. They are in PowerPoint format and should be run as a slideshow. Each set contains approximately 20 questions. Correct answers are indicated as well as explanations of the reasons for rejecting the alternatives. We recommend that you download the PowerPoints and run them from your disk. If you do not have PowerPoint installed you can download PowerPoint Viewer free here.